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Posts Tagged ‘templos Hindus’

Khajuraho é hoje um dos mais populares destinos turísticos na Índia, provavelmente pela presença do maior grupo de templos  Hindus medievais, famosos pelas suas esculturas eróticas, onde serviu de capital religiosa à dinastia Hindu Rajput dos Chandelas, que controlou esta parte da Índia entre o século 10 e o século 12 os quais seriam seguidores do culto tântrico.

O conjunto de templos foi construído ao longo de cem anos, desde o ano 950 até ao ano 1050, dotado de uma área central protegida por uma muralha com oito portões, cada um dos quais com duas palmeiras de ouro. Na época áurea, a  cidade, contava com mais de 80 templos Hindus, dos quais, hoje, apenas 22 se encontram em estado razoável de conservação, espalhados numa área de cerca de 21 km².

Atualmente, a estação arqueológica tem características semelhantes às de um parque público inglês, com relvas, roseiras e árvores de jardim, o que é apreciado por alguns dos turistas, mas que, na opinião de alguns críticos, não tem qualquer tipo de relação com a paisagem histórica  da época em que os templos foram construídos.

 Esses Templos, representam  um exemplo da ligação entre a religião e o erotismo, sendo excelentes demonstrações dos estilos arquitetônicos da Índia que ganharam popularidade devido à representação lascíva de alguns aspectos da forma de vida tradicional durante a época medieval naquela região. Viriam a ser redescobertos somente durante o século 20. O conjunto de monumentos foi classificado pela UNESCO como Patrimônio Mundial.

Algumas correntes de opinião mais críticas catalogam os templos de Khajuraho como uma forma de expressão do Hinduísmo ligada ao nudismo ou o sexo, mas as correntes de opinião contrárias contrapõem, afirmando que na atualidade os templos não têm expressão religiosa existente, servindo apenas como meros monumentos.                               

A dinastia Hindu Rajput dos Chandelas, era seguidora do culto     tântrico, segundo algumas opiniões, muitas vezes mal interpretado, que crê na gratificação dos desejos terrenos como um passo adiante para atingir a libertação total (e posteriormente o Nirvana).          

               

Curiosidades 

A enorme riqueza dos trabalhos de escultura.

  • Nenhum dos templos de Khajuraho contém temas relacionados com a sexualidade nas suas áreas interiores, estando a representação erótica presente apenas através das esculturas nas paredes exteriores de alguns templos. A razão para esta organização dos elementos eróticos estará ligada ao fato de que, o visitante crente que pretendia estar perto da divindade, deveria deixar os seus desejos sexuais fora do templo. Seria assim experimentada por parte do crente, uma pureza interior inerente à divindade com o qual se pretenderia manter contato, mantendo igualmente a pureza de atman (ou da alma) para que não houvesse lugar a um estado de desejo ou tendências grosseiras, medo do destino, etc.
  • Os elementos eróticos estão presentes apenas em cerca de dez por cento de todas as esculturas, representando cenas de erotismo ou sexo entre figuras humanas e não entre divindades. As restantes esculturas representam situações da vida social , como são os exemplos das esculturas que representam mulheres colocando maquiagem, músicos, oleiros, camponeses, etc. Todas estas representações estão fora das zonas sagradas dos templos, indicando que o visitante crente deveria tomar Deus como o ponto central da vida, mesmo quando existem assuntos normais da vida para tratar.

Danças tipicas de Khajuraho A dança na Índia é de pelo menos 5000 anos. Uma estátua de uma menina dançando foi encontrada nas ruínas de Mohenjodaro e é datado do século 2 aC aproximadamente. Muitos grupos dessa dança representam sequências das pinturas da cavernas Bhimbetaka de Madhya Pradesh. O apsaras (Celestials) dançarinos estão esculpidos no gateways de Sanchi. As pinturas de Ajanta e Ellora, as esculturas de Khajuraho, paredes de templos da dinastia Hoysala, é ampla evidência de popularidade da dança indiana desde os tempos antigos.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           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